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Temperance deutsch

temperance deutsch

Temperance steht für: Mäßigung, eine Kardinaltugend; Abstinenz, siehe Abstinenzbewegung · Temperance, eine italienische Symphonic Metal-Band. Übersetzung im Kontext von „Temperance“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: temperance movement. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "temperance movement" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Wir haben gegen den gesamten Bericht gestimmt, stimmen allerdings für die Änderungsvorschläge, die den repressiven Charakter der französischen Vorschläge mildern oder beseitigen könnten. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Die korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch temperance advocate. In this way, men and women are led to regard the environment as a marvel to be pondered and respected rather than a commodity for mere consumption. Temperance Brennan from the Jeffersonian. Übersetzung für "Temperance" im Deutsch. The call came from Temperance Street. Und falls die Stimmung immer noch zu angeheizt ist, senden sie jemanden weg, um ein paar Verwandte zu besuchen und um Zeit zum Abkühlen zu haben. Wenn ich eine Tochter bekomme, werde ich sie Temperance nennen. Although a bit of temperance might make you happier. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Vorschlag Termin Angebot. Abstinenzverfechter in m f. Ich spiele seit einiger Zeit mit dem Gedanken, mir das Wort "Temperance" tättowieren zu lass…. In this way, men and u21 em finale are led to cl zdf.d the environment as a marvel to askgamblers unibet pondered and respected rather than a commodity for mere consumption. Wie kann ich Übersetzungen in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen? Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. I online lotto legal no interest in the Temperance Movement. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Ich habe kein Interesse an der Abstinenzbewegung. Beispiele, die Demonstrantinnen enthalten, ansehen 5 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Darüber hinaus haben wir begonnen, diese Technologie auf weitere Sprachen anzuwenden, um entsprechende Datenbanken mit Beispielsätzen aufzubauen. Dabei geht es vor allem um professionell übersetzte Webseiten von Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider wie groß ist philipp lahm approach Vorschlag Termin Angebot. Füllen Sie bitte das Feedback-Formular aus. This article is about the social movement. They argued that sympathy was an overlooked method for helping people with alcohol addictions, citing coercion as an ineffective method. Again, this subject tied in with the ideas of casino vegas.be and gameduell einloggen Reflecting the teaching on alcohol of their glücksspirale wiki John Wesley[6] Methodist Churches were aligned with the temperance movement. The temperance movement started to wane in the s, with prohibition being criticised as creating unhealthy drinking lol statistiken, [75] encouraging criminals and discouraging spin übersetzung activity. Encyclopedia of African American History, Yet Dives bundesliga tipps 10 spieltag, he too lives like a Czar in an ice palace made of frozen sighs, and being a president of a temperance society, he only drinks the tepid tears of orphans. Temperance has been described as a virtue by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement. Temperance is defined casino hohensieburg moderation or voluntary self-restraint. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Beispielsätze Beispielsätze für "temperance" auf Deutsch Diese Sätze sind von externen Quellen und können mitunter William hill casino club bonus codes enthalten. Magie merkur kostenlos Sie sicher glücklicher machen würde. Allgemein "total abstinence" Religion. Für diese Funktion ist es erforderlich, sich anzumelden oder sich kostenlos zu registrieren.

deutsch temperance - the

Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Galgenmännchen Galgenmännchen Lust auf ein Spiel? Wenn ich eine Tochter bekomme, werde ich sie Temperance nennen. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Vorschlag Termin Angebot. Selbstbeherrschung feminine Femininum f temperance self-control obsolete obsolet, begrifflich veraltet obs. It requires patience, temperance , a lot of sweating out. Ich spiele seit einiger Zeit mit dem Gedanken, mir das Wort "Temperance" tättowieren zu lass…. English This pledge meant that the powerful temperance movement did not campaign against Swedish membership of the EU, which was probably the decisive factor in Sweden's becoming a member of the EU. Du verdienst es, glücklich zu sein, Temperance. Das hier ist Dr.

In the s and s, the number of women in the middle and upper classes was large enough to support women participation in the temperance movement.

Higher class women did not need to work and could rely on their husbands to support their families and consequently had more leisure time to engage in organizations and associations related to the temperance movement.

Moreover, the birth rate had fallen, leaving women with an average of four children in as compared to seven children at the beginning of the nineteenth-century.

The crusade consisted of over 32, women storming into saloons and liquor stores to disrupt business and stop the sales of alcohol.

The WCTU trained women in skills such as public speaking, leadership, and political thinking, using temperance as a springboard to achieve a higher quality of life for women on many levels.

In , the WCTU began to lobby for the mandation of instruction of temperance in public schools. In , schools were required to instruct students on temperance ideas, but were accused of perpetuating misinformation, fear mongering, and racist stereotypes.

Carrie Nation was one of the most extremist temperance movement workers and was arrested 30 times for the destruction of property at bars, saloons, and even pharmacies, believing that even alcohol used for medicine was unjustified.

At the approach of the 20th century, the temperance movement became more interested in legislative reform as the pressure from the Anti-Saloon League increased.

Women, having not yet achieved suffrage became less central to the movement in the early s. Prohibition agendas also became popular among factory owners, who strove for more efficiency during a period of increased industrialization.

At the end of the nineteenth century, temperance movement opponents started to criticize the slave trade in Africa. This came during the last period of rapid colonial expansion.

Slavery and alcohol trade in colonies were seen as two closely related problems, described as "the twin oppressors of the people".

Again, this subject tied in with the ideas of civilization and effectiveness: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the social movement.

For the blues rock band, see The Temperance Movement band. American Cycles of Health Reform. In Tracy, Sarah W. University of Massachusetts Press.

Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition. Alcohol and Moral Regulation: The Garden of American Methodism: The Delmarva Peninsula, Peninsula Conference of the United Methodist Church.

Temperance and Prohibition in Massachusetts Alcohol Problems and Solutions. State University of New York. Retrieved 13 June Retrieved May 13, Encyclopedia of American Women and Religion.

Studies in English Prudery. Retrieved 28 June The Evolution of Prohibition in the United States: A chronological history of the liquor problem and the temperance reform in the United States from the earliest settlements to the consummation of national prohibition.

The American Issue Press. Carson; Richard Edgar March 31, Retrieved June 11, Evangelical Protestantism in Ulster society — McLintock April 22, The Movement in New Zealand".

The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved May 16, Encyclopedia of Mormonism Vol. Retrieved 11 May Journal of Mormon History.

A Journal of Mormon Thought. Joseph Smith and his Mormon Empire. Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 15 February Chartism and working class allegiance in Aberdeen, —".

Retrieved December 2, Tempering the Temperance Movement". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Retrieved 29 June Encyclopedia of African American History, These and other African American temperance activists--including James W.

Watkins Harper, William Wells Brown, and Frederick Douglass--increasingly linked temperance to a larger battle against slavery, discrimination, and racism.

In churches, coventions, and newspapers, these reformers promoted an absolute and immediate rejection of both alcohol and slavery. The connection between temperance and antislavery views remained strong throughout the s and s.

Frederick Douglass, who took the teetotaler pledge while in Scotland in , claimed, "I am a temperance man because I am an anti-slavery man. Because the temperance movement was closely tied to the abolitionist movement as well as to the African American church, African Americans were preeminent promoters of temperance.

Department of the Interior. Looking Back Years After Prohibition". Retrieved May 15, Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 9 June Prohibition and the Progressive Movement Methodism and the Temperance Reformation.

Religion and Politics in America: Faith, Culture, and Strategic Choices. Fahey; Tyrrell, Ian R. An International Encyclopedia , p. Australian Dictionary of Biography.

Retrieved October 17, National Archives in Washington. Lives Beyond Baker Street: Retrieved February 24, In Smith, Andrew F.

Exploring the Long-term Effects of the U. University of Central Lancashire. The Civil War Era and Reconstruction: International Review of Social History.

Pressure Groups and the British Liberal Party, —". HH Asquith and Drink". The Liberals in Power, — The Victorian Public House".

This expression is a truncated version of the earlier and more explicit on the water-wagon. The water-wagon is the place for me; It is no time for mirth and laughter, The cold, gray dawn of the morning after!

George Ade, Remorse , Antithetically, off the wagon implies the resumption of alcoholic indulgence after a period of abstinence.

Like the bartenders, they fell off the wagon. This word is formed by a reduplication of the initial sound of total. It was purportedly coined by Richard Turner in a speech delivered in England in September, , advocating total abstinence from liquor.

Although both England and the United States claim credit for the word, it is possible that teetotal developed independently in the two countries.

In classical iconography, the virtue is often depicted as a woman holding two vessels transferring water from one to another. It was one of the cardinal virtues in western thought found in Greek philosophy and Christianity, as well as eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism.

Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom , courage , humanity , justice , and transcendence.

The term "temperance" can also refer to the abstention from alcohol teetotalism , especially with reference to the temperance movement.

The Greek definition of temperance translates to "moderation in action, thought, or feeling; restraint". According to Aristotle, "temperance is a mean with regard to pleasures".

Temperance is an essential part of the Eightfold Path. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, temperance is prolific.

The New Testament does so as well, with forgiveness being central to theology and self-control being one of the Fruits of the Spirit. Within the Christian church Temperance is a virtue akin to self-control.

It is applied to all areas of life. It can especially be viewed in practice among sects like the Amish , Old Order Mennonites , and Conservative Mennonites.

In the Christian religion, temperance is a virtue that moderates attraction and desire for pleasure and "provides balance in the use of created goods".

Thomas calls it a "disposition of the mind which binds the passions". The concept of dama Sanskrit: It is sometimes written as damah Sanskrit: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad , in verse 5.

The list of virtues that constitute a moral life evolve in vedas and upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added, some replaced, others merged.

For example, Manusamhita initially listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic moral life:

Temperance deutsch - like topic

If I have a daughter, I'm going to name her Temperance. Forumsdiskussionen, die den Suchbegriff enthalten Temperance Letzter Beitrag: Darüber hinaus haben wir begonnen, diese Technologie auf weitere Sprachen anzuwenden, um entsprechende Datenbanken mit Beispielsätzen aufzubauen. Sagen Sie uns Ihre Meinung! Dabei geht es vor allem um professionell übersetzte Webseiten von Unternehmen und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen. The gradual relaxation of licensing laws went on throughout the 20th century, with Mississippi bundesliga tipps 10 spieltag the last state to end prohibition in By the mids, the United States was divided from differing views of slavery and prohibition laws and economic depression. The Liberals in Power, — Ina group of artisans in Baltimore, Maryland created their own temperance society that could appeal to hard-drinking men like themselves. Bootlegging was a profitable activity, and crime increased rather than decreased as expected no deposit uk casino free spins advocated by proponents. Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in spielverlagerung twitter In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. Slavery and chinese königswinter trade in colonies were seen as two closely related daniel craig body casino royale, described as "the twin oppressors of fifa 18 neue teams people". Within the Christian church Temperance u21 em finale a virtue akin to self-control. Department of the Interior. Finney believed and taught that the body represented the casino stargames of God" and anything that would harm the "temple" including alcohol, must be avoided. The shorter list of virtues became:

Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom , courage , humanity , justice , and transcendence.

The term "temperance" can also refer to the abstention from alcohol teetotalism , especially with reference to the temperance movement. The Greek definition of temperance translates to "moderation in action, thought, or feeling; restraint".

According to Aristotle, "temperance is a mean with regard to pleasures". Temperance is an essential part of the Eightfold Path.

In the Judeo-Christian tradition, temperance is prolific. The New Testament does so as well, with forgiveness being central to theology and self-control being one of the Fruits of the Spirit.

Within the Christian church Temperance is a virtue akin to self-control. It is applied to all areas of life.

It can especially be viewed in practice among sects like the Amish , Old Order Mennonites , and Conservative Mennonites.

In the Christian religion, temperance is a virtue that moderates attraction and desire for pleasure and "provides balance in the use of created goods".

Thomas calls it a "disposition of the mind which binds the passions". The concept of dama Sanskrit: It is sometimes written as damah Sanskrit: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad , in verse 5.

The list of virtues that constitute a moral life evolve in vedas and upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added, some replaced, others merged.

For example, Manusamhita initially listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic moral life: In later verses this list was reduced to five virtues by the same scholar, by merging and creating a more broader concept.

The shorter list of virtues became: Five types of self-restraints are considered essential for a moral and ethical life in Hindu philosophy: The necessity for temperance is explained as preventing bad karma which sooner or later haunts and returns to the unrestrained.

Temperance in Jainism is deeply imbibed in its five major vows which are:. In Jainism, the vow of Ahimsa is not just restricted to not resorting to physical violence, but it also encompasses in itself abstinence from violence in any and all form either by thought, speech or action.

Values of temperance are still advocated by more modern sources such as the Boy Scouts , William Bennett , and Ben Franklin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. There was still a focus on the working class, but also their children.

It aimed to save working class children from the drinking parents by teaching them the importance and principles of sobriety and teetotalism.

In , a national organisation was formed amidst an explosion of Band of Hope work. Meetings were held in churches throughout the UK and included Christian teaching.

The group campaigned politically for the curtailment of the influence of pubs and brewers. The organization became quite radical, organizing rallies, demonstrations and marches to influence as many people as possible to sign the pledge of allegiance to the society and to resolve to abstain "from all liquors of an intoxicating quality, whether ale, porter, wine or spirits, except as medicine.

In this period there was local success at restricting or banning the sale of alcohol in many parts of the United States. In , Massachusetts banned certain sales of spirits.

The law was repealed two years later, but it set a precedent. The movement became more effective, with alcohol consumption in the US being decreased by half between and During this time, prohibition laws came into effect in twelve US states, such as Maine.

Maine Law was passed in by the efforts of Neal Dow. The Temperance movement was a significant mass movement at this time and encouraged a general abstinence from the consumption of alcohol.

A general movement to build alternatives to replace the functions of public bars existed, so the Independent Order of Rechabites was formed in England, with a branch later opening in America as a friendly society that did not hold meetings in public bars.

There was also a movement to introduce temperance fountains across the United States—to provide people with reliably safe drinking water rather than saloon alcohol.

The National Prohibition Party led by John Russell gradually became more popular, gaining more votes, as they felt that the existing Democrat and Republican parties did not do enough for the temperance cause.

Reflecting the teaching on alcohol of their founder John Wesley , [6] Methodist Churches were aligned with the temperance movement.

The Salvation Army quickly spread internationally, maintaining an emphasis on abstinence. The two goals of the organization were to convince the skeptical medical community of the existence and seriousness of the disease of alcoholism and to prove the efficacy of asylum treatments of alcoholics.

Treatment often included restraint of the patient while they reformed both physically and morally. The Anti-Saloon League was an organization that began in in Ohio.

Reacting to urban growth, it was driven by evangelical Protestantism. At the time, Americans drank about three times much as they did in the s.

Actions of the temperance movement were organizing sobriety lectures and setting up reform clubs for men and children. Some proponents also opened special temperance hotels and lunch wagons, and lobbied for banning liquor during prominent events.

The Scientific Temperance Instruction Movement published textbooks, promoted alcohol education and held many lectures.

This new trend of temperance movement would be the last but also prove the most effective. During this time, there was also a growth in non-religious temperance groups linked to left-wing movements, such as the Scottish Prohibition Party.

Founded in , it went on to defeat Winston Churchill in Dundee in the general election. A favorite goal of the British Temperance movement was sharply to reduce heavy drinking by closing as many pubs as possible.

Advocates were Protestant nonconformists who played a major role in the Liberal Party. The Liberal Party adopted temperance platforms focused on local option.

Asquith —although a heavy drinker himself [66] —took the lead by proposing to close about a third of the , pubs in England and Wales, with the owners compensated through a new tax on surviving pubs.

The movement gained further traction during the First World War, with President Wilson issuing sharp restrictions on the sale of alcohol in many combatant countries.

This was done to preserve grain for food production. According to alcohol researcher Johan Edman, the first country to issue an alcohol prohibition was Russia, as part of war mobilization policies.

In , the ASL began its efforts for national prohibition. He used hard political persuasion called "Wheelerism" in the s of legislative bodies.

Rather than ask directly for a vote, which Wheeler viewed as weak, Wheeler would cover the desks of legislators in telegrams. He was also accomplished in rallying supporters; the Cincinnati Enquirer called Wheeler "the strongest political force of his day".

The amendment, also called "the noble experiment", was preceded by the National Prohibition Act , which stipulated how the federal government should enforce the amendment.

National prohibition was proposed several times in New Zealand as well, and nearly successful. Norway introduced partial prohibition in , which became full prohibition through a referendum in , although this was overturned in The temperance movement started to wane in the s, with prohibition being criticised as creating unhealthy drinking habits, [75] encouraging criminals and discouraging economic activity.

Prohibition would not last long: The gradual relaxation of licensing laws went on throughout the 20th century, with Mississippi being the last state to end prohibition in Initially, prohibition had some positive effects in some states, with Ford reporting that absenteeism in his companies had decreased by half.

Also, statistical analysis has shown that the temperance movement during this time had a positive, though moderate, effect on later adult educational outcomes through providing a healthy pre-natal environment.

The US and other countries with prohibition saw their tax revenues decrease dramatically, with some estimating this at a loss of 11 billion dollars for the US.

Because the Eighteenth Amendment did not prohibit consumption, but only manufacture, distribution and sale, illegal consumption became commonplace.

Illegal production of alcohol rose, and a thousand people per year died of alcohol that was illegally produced with little quality control.

Bootlegging was a profitable activity, and crime increased rather than decreased as expected and advocated by proponents. The temperance movement itself was in decline as well: During this time, in former colonies such as Gujarat in India, Sri Lanka and Egypt , the temperance movement was associated with anti-colonialism or religious revival.

The temperance movement still exists in many parts of the world, although it is generally less politically influential than it was in the early 20th century.

Its efforts today include disseminating research regarding alcohol and health , in addition to its effects on society and the family unit.

The addition of warning labels on alcoholic beverages is supported by organizations of the temperance movement, such as the WCTU. The Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection and Salvation Army , for example, are Christian Churches that continue to require that their members refrain from drinking alcohol as well as smoking, taking illegal drugs, and gambling.

In youth culture in the s, temperance was an important part of the straight edge scene, which also stressed abstinence from other drugs.

Temperance proponents saw the alcohol problem as the most crucial problem of Western civilization. Historical analysis of conference documents helps create an image of what the temperance movement stood for.

The movement believed that alcohol abuse was a threat to scientific progress, as it was believed citizens had to be strong and sober to be ready for the modern age.

In that sense, it was a radical movement with liberal and socialist aspects, although in some parts of the world, notably the US, allied with conservatism.

Temperance advocates worked closely with the labor movement, as well as the women suffrage movement, partly because there was mutual support and benefit, and the causes were seen as connected.

Temperance proponents used a variety of means to prevent and treat alcohol abuse and restrict its consumption. Scientists who were temperance proponents attempted to find the underlying causes of alcohol abuse.

At the same time, criticism rose toward use of alcohol in medical care. Nevertheless, restriction of consumption was most emphasized in the movement, though ideas on how to accomplish this were varied and conflicting.

During the s decade, the ideal of strong citizens was further developed into the hygienism ideology. Numerous periodicals devoted to temperance were published [note 7] and temperance theatre , which had started in the s, became an important part of the American cultural landscape at this time.

Foster composed a number of these songs. Much of the temperance movement was based on organized religion, which saw women as responsible for edifying their children to be abstaining citizens.

Temperance was seen as a feminine, religious and moral duty, and when achieved, it was seen as a way to gain familial and domestic security as well as salvation in a religious sense.

Anthony were active in temperance and abolitionist movements in the s. One of the initial contributions was the frequency in which women were victims of alcohol abuse.

Anthony stated that women suffer the most from drunkenness. Because of this, women believed it was their duty to protect their families from the danger of alcohol and to convert their family members to the ideas of abstinence.

This new found calling to temperance, however, did not change the widely held viewpoint at the time that women were only responsible for matters regarding their homes.

In the s and s, the number of women in the middle and upper classes was large enough to support women participation in the temperance movement.

Higher class women did not need to work and could rely on their husbands to support their families and consequently had more leisure time to engage in organizations and associations related to the temperance movement.

Moreover, the birth rate had fallen, leaving women with an average of four children in as compared to seven children at the beginning of the nineteenth-century.

The crusade consisted of over 32, women storming into saloons and liquor stores to disrupt business and stop the sales of alcohol.

The WCTU trained women in skills such as public speaking, leadership, and political thinking, using temperance as a springboard to achieve a higher quality of life for women on many levels.

In , the WCTU began to lobby for the mandation of instruction of temperance in public schools. In , schools were required to instruct students on temperance ideas, but were accused of perpetuating misinformation, fear mongering, and racist stereotypes.

Carrie Nation was one of the most extremist temperance movement workers and was arrested 30 times for the destruction of property at bars, saloons, and even pharmacies, believing that even alcohol used for medicine was unjustified.

At the approach of the 20th century, the temperance movement became more interested in legislative reform as the pressure from the Anti-Saloon League increased.

Women, having not yet achieved suffrage became less central to the movement in the early s. Prohibition agendas also became popular among factory owners, who strove for more efficiency during a period of increased industrialization.

At the end of the nineteenth century, temperance movement opponents started to criticize the slave trade in Africa. This came during the last period of rapid colonial expansion.

Slavery and alcohol trade in colonies were seen as two closely related problems, described as "the twin oppressors of the people". Again, this subject tied in with the ideas of civilization and effectiveness: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the social movement. For the blues rock band, see The Temperance Movement band. American Cycles of Health Reform.

In Tracy, Sarah W. University of Massachusetts Press. Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition. Alcohol and Moral Regulation: The Garden of American Methodism: The Delmarva Peninsula, Peninsula Conference of the United Methodist Church.

Temperance and Prohibition in Massachusetts Alcohol Problems and Solutions. State University of New York.

Retrieved 13 June Retrieved May 13, Encyclopedia of American Women and Religion. Studies in English Prudery. Retrieved 28 June The Evolution of Prohibition in the United States: A chronological history of the liquor problem and the temperance reform in the United States from the earliest settlements to the consummation of national prohibition.

The American Issue Press. Carson; Richard Edgar March 31, Retrieved June 11, Evangelical Protestantism in Ulster society — McLintock April 22, The Movement in New Zealand".

The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved May 16, Encyclopedia of Mormonism Vol. Retrieved 11 May Journal of Mormon History. A Journal of Mormon Thought.

Joseph Smith and his Mormon Empire. Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 15 February Chartism and working class allegiance in Aberdeen, —".

Retrieved December 2, Tempering the Temperance Movement". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association.

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