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The new Bezirke , named after their district centres, were as follows: Despite the city as a whole being legally under the control of the Allied Control Council , and diplomatic objections of the Allied governments, the GDR administered the Bezirk of Berlin as part of its territory.

The government of East Germany had control over a large number of military and paramilitary organisations through various ministries.

Chief among these was the Ministry of National Defence. Defining what was a military force and what was not is a matter of some dispute.

It was an all volunteer force until an eighteen-month conscription period was introduced in The border troops of the Eastern sector were originally organised as a police force, the Deutsche Grenzpolizei, similar to the Bundesgrenzschutz in West Germany.

It was controlled by the Ministry of the Interior. In , it was separated from the NVA, but it remained under the same ministry.

At its peak, it numbered approximately 47, men. These units were, like the Kasernierte Volkspolizei, equipped as motorised infantry, and they numbered between 12, and 15, men.

The Ministry of State Security Stasi included the Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment , which was mainly involved with facilities security and plain clothes events security.

They were the only part of the feared Stasi that was visible to the public, and so were very unpopular within the population.

The Stasi numbered around 90, men, the Guards Regiment around 11,, men. The Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse combat groups of the working class numbered around , for much of their existence, and were organised around factories.

They received their training from the Volkspolizei and the Ministry of the Interior. Membership was voluntary, but SED members were required to join as part of their membership obligation.

In the s, East German leaders acknowledged that former construction soldiers were at a disadvantage when they rejoined the civilian sphere.

The East German state promoted an anti-imperialist line that was reflected in all its media and all the schools. Popular reaction to these measures was mixed, and Western media penetrated the country both through cross-border television and radio broadcasts from West Germany and from the American propaganda network Radio Free Europe.

Dissidents, particularly professionals, sometimes fled to West Germany, which was relatively easy before the construction of the Berlin Wall in After receiving wider international diplomatic recognition in —73, the GDR began active cooperation with Third World socialist governments and national liberation movements.

In friendship treaties were signed with Angola, Mozambique and Ethiopia. It was estimated that altogether, — DDR military and security experts were dispatched to Africa.

In addition, representatives from African and Arab countries and liberation movements underwent military training in the GDR.

The East German economy began poorly because of the devastation caused by the Second World War; the loss of so many young soldiers, the disruption of business and transportation, and finally reparations owed to the USSR.

The Red Army dismantled and transported to Russia the infrastructure and industrial plants of the Soviet Zone of Occupation. By the early s, the reparations were paid in agricultural and industrial products; and Lower Silesia , with its coal mines and Szczecin , an important natural port, were given to Poland by the decision of Stalin.

In , collective state enterprises earned In , the average annual growth of the GDP was approximately five percent. This made East German economy the richest in all of the Soviet Bloc until after the fall of Communism in the country.

Notable East German exports were photographic cameras , under the Praktica brand; automobiles under the Trabant , Wartburg , and the IFA brands; hunting rifles, sextants , typewriters and wristwatches.

Until the s, East Germans endured shortages of basic foodstuffs such as sugar and coffee. East Germans with friends or relatives in the West or with any access to a hard currency and the necessary Staatsbank foreign currency account could afford Western products and export-quality East German products via Intershop.

Consumer goods also were available, by post, from the Danish Jauerfood , and Genex companies. The government used money and prices as political devices, providing highly subsidised prices for a wide range of basic goods and services, in what was known as "the second pay packet".

For the consumer, it led to the substitution of GDR money with time, barter, and hard currencies. The socialist economy became steadily more dependent on financial infusions from hard-currency loans from West Germany.

East Germans, meanwhile, came to see their soft currency as worthless relative to the Deutsche Mark DM. Many western commentators have maintained that loyalty to the SED was a primary criterion for getting a good job, and that professionalism was secondary to political criteria in personnel recruitment and development.

They numbered more than , by Many, such as future politician Zeca Schall who emigrated from Angola in as a contract worker stayed in Germany after the Wende.

Religion became contested ground in the GDR, with the governing Communists promoting state atheism , although some people remained loyal to Christian communities.

In , the renowned philosophical theologian, Paul Tillich , claimed that the Protestant population in East Germany had the most admirable Church in Protestantism, because the Communists there had not been able to win a spiritual victory over them.

When it first came to power, the Communist party asserted the compatibility of Christianity and Marxism and sought Christian participation in the building of socialism.

At first the promotion of Marxist-Leninist atheism received little official attention. In the mids, as the Cold War heated up, atheism became a topic of major interest for the state, in both domestic and foreign contexts.

University chairs and departments devoted to the study of scientific atheism were founded and much literature scholarly and popular on the subject was produced.

Official and scholarly attention to atheism renewed beginning in , though this time with more emphasis on scholarship and on the training of cadres than on propaganda.

Throughout, the attention paid to atheism in East Germany was never intended to jeopardise the cooperation that was desired from those East Germans who were religious.

East Germany, historically, was majority Protestant primarily Lutheran from the early stages of the Protestant Reformation onwards.

Between and the leadership of the East German Lutheran churches gradually changed its relations with the state from hostility to cooperation. The church adopted an attitude of confrontation and distance toward the state.

Around this began to develop into a more neutral stance accommodating conditional loyalty. The government was no longer regarded as illegitimate; instead, the church leaders started viewing the authorities as installed by God and, therefore, deserving of obedience by Christians.

But on matters where the state demanded something which the churches felt was not in accordance with the will of God, the churches reserved their right to say no.

There were both structural and intentional causes behind this development. Structural causes included the hardening of Cold War tensions in Europe in the mids, which made it clear that the East German state was not temporary.

The loss of church members also made it clear to the leaders of the church that they had to come into some kind of dialogue with the state.

The intentions behind the change of attitude varied from a traditional liberal Lutheran acceptance of secular power to a positive attitude toward socialist ideas.

Manfred Stolpe became a lawyer for the Brandenburg Protestant Church in before taking up a position at church headquarters in Berlin. In he helped found the Bund der Evangelischen Kirchen in der DDR BEK , where he negotiated with the government while at the same time working within the institutions of this Protestant body.

He won the regional elections for the Brandenburg state assembly at the head of the SPD list in Stolpe remained in the Brandenburg government until he joined the federal government in Apart from the Protestant state churches German: The smaller Roman Catholic Church in eastern Germany had a fully functioning episcopal hierarchy that was in full accord with the Vatican.

During the early postwar years, tensions were high. The Catholic Church as a whole and particularly the bishops resisted both the East German state and Marxist ideology.

The state allowed the bishops to lodge protests, which they did on issues such as abortion. After the Church did fairly well in integrating Catholic exiles from lands to the east which mostly became part of Poland and in adjusting its institutional structures to meet the needs of a church within an officially atheist society.

This meant an increasingly hierarchical church structure, whereas in the area of religious education, press, and youth organisations, a system of temporary staff was developed, one that took into account the special situation of Caritas , a Catholic charity organisation.

By , therefore, there existed a Catholic subsociety that was well adjusted to prevailing specific conditions and capable of maintaining Catholic identity.

With a generational change in the episcopacy taking place in the early s, the state hoped for better relations with the new bishops, but the new bishops instead began holding unauthorised mass meetings, promoting international ties in discussions with theologians abroad, and hosting ecumenical conferences.

The new bishops became less politically oriented and more involved in pastoral care and attention to spiritual concerns. The government responded by limiting international contacts for bishops.

GDR culture and politics were limited by the harsh censorship. The Puhdys and Karat were some of the most popular mainstream bands in East Germany.

Like most mainstream acts, they appeared in popular youth magazines such as Neues Leben and Magazin. Other popular rock bands were Wir , City , Silly and Pankow.

Schlager , which was very popular in the west, also gained a foothold early on in East Germany, and numerous musicians, such as Gerd Christian , Uwe Jensen , and Hartmut Schulze-Gerlach gained national fame.

From to , an international schlager festival was held in Rostock , garnering participants from between 18 and 22 countries each year. Bands and singers from other Communist countries were popular, e.

Czerwone Gitary from Poland known as the Rote Gitarren. West German television and radio could be received in many parts of the East.

The Western influence led to the formation of more "underground" groups with a decisively western-oriented sound.

Additionally, hip hop culture reached the ears of the East German youth. With videos such as Beat Street and Wild Style , young East Germans were able to develop a hip hop culture of their own.

The entire street culture surrounding rap entered the region and became an outlet for oppressed youth. The government of the GDR was invested in both promoting the tradition of German classical music , and in supporting composers to write new works in that tradition.

The birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach — , Eisenach , was rendered as a museum about him, featuring more than three hundred instruments, which, in , received some 70, visitors.

In Leipzig, the Bach archive contains his compositions and correspondence and recordings of his music. East German theatre was originally dominated by Bertolt Brecht , who brought back many artists out of exile and reopened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with his Berliner Ensemble.

In the s, a parallel theatre scene sprung up, creating theatre "outside of Berlin" in which artists played at provincial theatres. Theatre and cabaret had high status in the GDR, which allowed it to be very pro-active.

This often brought it into confrontation with the state. Benno Besson once said, "In contrast to artists in the west, they took us seriously, we had a bearing.

The Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin is the last major building erected by the GDR, making it an exceptional architectural testimony to how Germany overcame of its former division.

The film industry was remarkable for its production of Ostern , or Western-like movies. Native Americans in these films often took the role of displaced people who fight for their rights, in contrast to the American westerns of the time, where Native Americans were often either not mentioned at all or are portrayed as the villains.

Yugoslavians were often cast as the Native Americans because of the small number of Native Americans in Europe. He became an honorary Sioux chief when he visited the United States in the s, and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe one of his movies.

American actor and singer Dean Reed , an expatriate who lived in East Germany, also starred in several films.

These films were part of the phenomenon of Europe producing alternative films about the colonization of America. Cinemas in the GDR also showed foreign films.

Czechoslovak and Polish productions were more common, but certain western movies were shown, though the numbers of these were limited because it cost foreign exchange to buy the licences.

Further, movies representing or glorifying capitalist ideology were not bought. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, several movies depicting life in the GDR have been critically acclaimed.

Go for Zucker by Dani Levi. Each film is heavily infused with cultural nuances unique to life in the GDR. East Germany was very successful in the sports of cycling , weight-lifting , swimming, gymnastics, track and field, boxing , ice skating , and winter sports.

The success is attributed to the leadership of Dr. Manfred Hoeppner which started in the late s. Another supporting reason was doping in East Germany , especially with anabolic steroids, the most detected doping substances in IOC -accredited laboratories for many years.

Sport teachers at school were encouraged to look for certain talents in children ages 6 to 10 years old. For older pupils it was possible to attend grammar schools with a focus on sports for example sailing, football and swimming.

This policy was also used for talented pupils with regard to music or mathematics. Sports clubs were highly subsidized, especially sports in which it was possible to get international fame.

For example, the major leagues for ice hockey and basketball just included 2 teams each. Football was the most popular sport.

Club football teams such as Dynamo Dresden , 1. Many East German players such as Matthias Sammer and Ulf Kirsten became integral parts of the reunified national football team.

Other sports enjoyed great popularity like figure skating, especially because of sportspeople like Katarina Witt.

Television and radio in East Germany were state-run industries; the Rundfunk der DDR was the official radio broadcasting organisation from until unification.

Reception of Western broadcasts was widespread. By the mids, East Germany possessed a well-developed communications system. There were approximately 3.

An unusual feature of the telephone network was that, in most cases, direct distance dialing for long-distance calls was not possible. Although area codes were assigned to all major towns and cities, they were only used for switching international calls.

Instead, each location had its own list of dialing codes with shorter codes for local calls and longer codes for long-distance calls.

After unification, the existing network was largely replaced, and area codes and dialing became standardised. In this state, each person had a place.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.

With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.

The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th. The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.

Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.

The government-backed Goethe-Institut [87] named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.

This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.

The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.

The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr.

The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.

Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Germanic languages. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language.

Early New High German. Geographical distribution of German speakers. Italy South Tyrol 0. German is official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.

German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a German dialect is a legally recognized minority language Squares: German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority, but has no legal recognition.

List of territorial entities where German is an official language. German language in Namibia. Brazilian German and Colonia Tovar dialect. Grammatical gender in German.

German orthography and German braille. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German. German orthography reform of High German consonant shift.

Outline of German language Deutsch disambiguation German family name etymology German toponymy Germanism linguistics List of German exonyms List of German expressions in English List of German words of French origin List of pseudo-German words adapted to English List of terms used for Germans List of territorial entities where German is an official language Names for the German language.

Die Stellung der deutschen Sprache in der Welt in German 1st ed. Retrieved 24 July Europeans and their languages" PDF report.

Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 28 September Retrieved August 6, Old English and its closest relatives: An Anthology of German Literature.

Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language: University of Washington Press.

A history of German: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: A history of the German language.

University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther. The "Duden" and its History". Die Rolle der II.

Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 18 July Statista, The Statistics Portal.

Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung. Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: Founding Provisions South African Government".

Retrieved 15 March Ideas viajeras y sus objetos. Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile". German Dialects map ". Volume 2, Reference Survey 1st ed.

Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Archived from the original on 15 May The "Duden" and Its History".

The Publisher as Teacher: Retrieved 5 December It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script.

In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.

All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.

The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.

Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 14 June In the second half of the 19th century Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile.

This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparangingly about a "German bewichment". German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.

The Consonants of German: The German Language in a Changing Europe. Retrieved 6 February Lay summary 6 February The Structure of German.

Retrieved 26 February Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Lay summary 26 February

Er ernährt sich hauptsächlich von Fertiggerichten. Was soll denn das sein? Ein Leben ohne Elektrizität ist heute nicht mehr möglich. Dazu kommen jetzt Millionen von 3 gewinnt spiele download Übersetzungsbeispielen aus externen Quellen, die relegation braunschweig, wie ein Begriff im Zusammenhang übersetzt wird. I can live with it. Em qualifikation deutschland polen Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme., as I live and breath.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German.

It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift. However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.

The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.

Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.

They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.

These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn.

The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east. The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace.

The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical. The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?

Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end.

Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.

Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.

Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.

At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.

The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.

Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.

These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly. The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate.

The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.

The most recent edition is the 42nd from The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol. This is a selection of cognates in both English and German.

Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems.

Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.

In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".

Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.

German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.

In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.

There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e.

Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.

These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.

The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.

The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.

In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.

In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.

Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.

In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.

East German mark — , officially named: The initial flag of East Germany adopted in was identical to that of West Germany.

In , the East German government issued a new version of the flag bearing the national emblem, serving to distinguish East from West.

France , United Kingdom and the United States. History of East Germany. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to Somali Democratic Republic to Forest Brothers in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia.

Part of a series on the. Reunification New federal states. Die Wende and German reunification. Politics of East Germany. History of communism Communist revolution Communist party Communist state Communist symbolism.

Constitution of East Germany. Administrative divisions of East Germany. Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic. Conscientious objection in East Germany.

Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. Economy of East Germany. State atheism and Irreligion in Germany. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Berlin.

Culture of East Germany. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Telecommunications in Germany and Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc. DD Information site about.

Towards a Global Community of Historians: Berghahn Books, , pp. East German Distinctiveness in a Unified Germany. Retrieved 8 August Democratization in Eastern Europe Routledge, Die Zeit , June Retrieved 10 May Building an International Sociology of Work.

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Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 25 September The Stalin Note of and the Problem of Reunification.

Haydock, City Under Siege: Following a Soviet order in February , the German Economic Commission became a nascent state structure for all intents and purposes, with competence far beyond the economy proper and it was granted power to issue orders and directives to all German organs within the Soviet Occupation Zone.

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A History of Europe Since Retrieved 24 October The historian Ulrich Busch argued that the currency union came too early; see Ulrich Busch: Wirtschaftspolitische Fehlleistung mit Folgen, in: Conradt, The German Polity p.

Retrieved 28 March Central and Eastern Europe after Archived from the original PDF on 11 November Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 11 August Germany and the Americas: Current Reports from the Foreign Service".

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But decisions on Church policies are to be made exclusively "in the party" [ Columbia University Press, , p. Bowers, "Private Institutions in Service to the State: Routledge Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since East German everyday culture and politics.

Retrieved 15 December Juli , abgerufen am Retrieved 19 December African- Americanization and Hip-hop in Germany. From Krauts with Attitudes to Turks with Attitudes: Theatre for the People: Retrieved 1 September Free-Market Nostalgia for Socialist Consumerism".

A Journal of Germanic Studies. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. Archived from the original on Tagilabue, John 12 February The New York Times.

Janofsky, Michael 3 December Kirschbaum, Erik 15 September Inside the East German doping machine 1st ed. Longman, Jere 26 January Harding, Luke 31 October Jackson, Guy September Archived from the original on 11 June Associated Press 13 December Retrieved 27 January Retrieved from Google Books 25 January That Was the Wild East: Film Culture, Unification, and the "New" Germany.

Architecture and Politics in Postwar Germany. Engineering and Dictatorship in East Germany, — Berger, Stefan, and Norman LaPorte, eds.

The East German Economy, — Falling Behind Or Catching Up? The Two Red Flags: Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Fulbrook, Mary and Andrew I. The German Democratic Republic since Love in the Time of Communism: Intimacy and Sexuality in the GDR.

Major, Patrick, and Jonathan Osmond, eds. The Plans That Failed: Basic Books, Spilker, Dirk. Patriotism and Propaganda — The Currency of Socialism: Money and Political Culture in East Germany.

Administrative divisions of the German Democratic Republic — Countries of Eastern and Central Europe during their Communist period.

Annexed as, or into, SSRs. Emigration and defection list of defectors Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping.

Brazil United Kingdom United States. Retrieved from " https: East Germany Communism in Germany Eastern Bloc Former polities of the Cold War Former socialist republics States and territories established in States and territories disestablished in Communist states Former member states of the United Nations Atheist states establishments in Germany disestablishments in Germany Ostalgie Totalitarian states Soviet satellite states.

Webarchive template wayback links Articles with German-language external links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history. En realidad, se trata de un correccional para delincuentes menores de edad.

Auf der Berlinale wird der Regisseur mit dem Teddy-Preis geehrt. German Haben Sie genug Zeit? Wann haben Sie zum letzten Mal die Zeit vergessen?

Existiert die Welt nur, wenn man sie sich in Zeit und Raum vorstellt? Beherrschen wir die Zeit, oder beherrscht die Zeit uns?

German Kinder haben eine innige Beziehung zu ihrem Haustier. Was tun, wenn es stirbt?

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