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They are a collection of imperial regalia and jewels dating from the 10th century to the 19th. They are one of the biggest and most important collection of royal objects still today, and reflect more than a thousand years of European history.
The treasury can be quantified into six important parts:. The most outstanding objects are the ancient crown of the Holy Roman Emperors and also the insignia of the much later hereditary Austrian emperors.
The Bohemian Crown Jewels cs: Made of carat gold and set with precious rubies, sapphires, emeralds, and pearls, the crown weighs g. The crown has an unusual design, with vertical fleurs-de-lis standing at the front, back and sides.
It was made for King Charles IV in Since it has been stored in St. Vitus Cathedral of Prague Castle. The jewels have always played an important role as a symbol of Bohemian statehood.
It was commissioned during the Habsburg era to better fit with the other jewels. The original, plain gold, is kept in the Vienna treasury.
The location of the regalia of the First and Second Bulgarian Empire is currently unknown. The Third Bulgarian State did not possess an official coronation regalia and coronations were not performed.
It is thought likely to have been lost during the Ottoman invasions of the Balkans in the 16th century.
The distinctive crown adorns several local flags in Croatia. The crown jewels and other royal regalia of Denmark are kept in Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen.
By the end of , the uncrowned monarch had abdicated and Finland had adopted a new republican constitution. Above the circlet are two arches.
Topping the arches is not a globus cruciger like in most European crowns, but a lion rampant as on the coat of arms of Finland. The inner circumference of the crown is approximately 58 centimeters and it weighs about 2 kilograms.
The Dukes of Brittany were crowned with a royal crown said to be that of the former kings of Brittany in a ceremony designed to emphasise the royal ancestry and sovereignty of the reigning duke.
He was a member of the ruling dynasty of France and heir to the French throne. He died in and was succeeded as dauphin by his brother Henry. Neither Henry nor any of his successors bothered to get crowned separately as Duke of Brittany but did use the title.
The location of the Breton crown is unknown but it is thought to have been moved to Paris at some point. It is most likely it was stolen and melted down during the reign of terror and the chaos of the French Revolution starting in The Dukes of Burgundy had a jewelled "Ducal Hat" rather than a formal crown which they wore for ceremonial occasions.
This hat was lost by Charles the Bold at the Battle of Grandson in when his army was routed and his baggage train was captured by the Swiss.
After the battle it came into the hands of the canton of Basle who hid it. Charles the Bold was killed at the Battle of Nancy the following year and the hat re-emerged to be sold first to the Fuggers in and then later to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
What happened to the hat after this is not known. Presumably, after this it was kept for a while by successive emperors particularly Emperor Charles V who was also the Duke of Burgundy but at some point it was lost or broken up.
There is no information about any crown for Kartli-Kakheti predating although presumably there was one. It is likely that the ancient crown or crowns, traditionally kept at Mtskheta , were lost in when Shah Agha Mohammed Khan of Persia invaded Kartli and ravaged the kingdom.
It was made in Russia and deviated from the traditional Georgian design. It was a closed crown or "corona clausa" made of gold and decorated with diamonds, 58 rubies, 24 emeralds and 16 amethysts.
It took the form of a circlet surmounted by ornaments and eight arches. A globe surmounted by a cross rested on the top of the crown.
Following the death of George XII in the crown was sent to Moscow and deposited in the Kremlin to prevent the coronation of any of his successors.
In it was presented to the National Museum of Georgia in Tbilisi but in it was once again sent back to Moscow where this time it was broken up or sold abroad.
The Crown of Imereti dating from the 12th century and believed to have been commissioned by David IV of Georgia was known to have been kept at the monastery at Gelati after the last king Solomon II was deposed in and Imereti occupied by Russia.
It is recorded as remaining there until at least after which it disappears from the record, presumably stolen or destroyed during the communist revolution , but perhaps hidden.
Grand Duke Karl II of Baden was the person to commission the grand ducal crown, although he died before its completion in The design of the crown follows the general pattern typical of a European royal crown, but is unique in that the circlet and the arches of the crown are made of gold fabric rather than of a precious metal such as gold or silver-gilt.
The precious stones which ornament this crown are in metal settings which are attached to this circlet and these arches much like brooches pinned to fabric.
At the intersection of the four arches of this crown is a blue enameled orb and a cross both set with diamonds. The cap on the inside of the crown is made of the same crimson velvet which also covers the reverse sides of the arches of the crown.
He restructured the many German states and the Duchy of Bavaria was promoted to a Kingdom. With his new status, the King ordered new regalia to be made, which included the Rumours included one that the stone had been sold illegally in through a Munich jeweller and had reappeared in the Netherlands.
Later research indicated that the gem had actually been sold in Belgium in and that it had changed hands again in In millions of visitors came to Brussels for the World Exhibition, which included the jewellery display which included a large blue diamond.
But no one was aware it was the missing Wittelsbach Diamond. In January Joseph Komkommer, a leading figure in the Belgian diamond industry, received a phone call asking him to look at an Old Mine cut diamond with a view of its recutting.
When he opened the package he found a dark blue diamond, which is among the rarest and most valuable of gems. Komkommer at once recognized that the diamond was one of historical significance and that it would be a tragedy to recut it.
The vendors were the trustees of an estate whose identity remained undisclosed. Finally, the Wittelsbach was acquired by private collector in Its original Golden Fleece ornament can be seen today in the Treasury of the Residenz Palace in Munich , a blue glass replica of the Wittelsbach in place of where the diamond was set.
The treasures of the Kings of Saxony are kept in Dresden. Aside from those items already present in Vienna, the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II , brought there much of the Imperial regalia traditionally located elsewhere, before the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in Other objects associated with the coronation of Holy Roman Emperors can be found in Aachen , in the treasury of the Aachen Cathedral.
The cathedral also houses a stone throne associated with Charlemagne , and was a traditional site for certain of the Imperial coronation ceremonies.
The Aachen City Hall houses copies of several important items of the Imperial regalia, now in Vienna, which had previously been kept in their city.
Both the old city hall and the core of the cathedral were once parts of the palace of Charlemagne. A new crown design was created for the new German empire, and used extensively in heraldic and other national emblems; however the actual crown itself was never constructed, aside from models.
Its use as a national emblem was discontinued after the collapse of the German monarchy in November ; examples of the design can still be found on various buildings and monuments from that era, including the Reichstag.
In practice, the crown jewels of the Kingdom of Prussia were used for the Emperors of Germany, with some new items being created.
A set of crown jewels were created for the first modern Greek king, Otto of Greece , but he never wore them and took them with him after fleeing the country.
His descendants later returned the regalia to Greece, but they were still never worn by any Greek monarch. Other remnants, or claimed remnants, of the regalia of the former Eastern Roman Empire, or items created in the Imperial workshops, can be found among the regalia of various European royal houses; having been dispersed at various times and in various ways.
Presumably, the bulk of the Imperial regalia found in Constantinople at the time of its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in , was absorbed into the treasury of the Turkish Sultan.
Examples of ancient-classical Greek regalia have been found among royal burial-goods in tombs at various archaeological sites.
The "Holy Crown of Hungary" Hungarian: Magyar Szent Korona , German: Kruna svetoga Stjepana , Latin: Sacra Corona , also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen , was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence.
No king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, and the mantle.
Since the 12th century, kings have been crowned with the still extant crown. The orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary — ; the other insignia can be linked to Saint Stephen.
It was first called the Holy Crown in During the 14th century royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object: This also meant that the Kingdom of Hungary was a special state: Older pre-conquest items relevant to the ancient Gaelic dynasties that once ruled Ireland probably also existed.
One example of this is an ancient relic called the Comerford or "Ikerrin" Crown that was discovered in but may have since been lost. The coronation robe is kept in the Schatzkammer in Vienna , Austria.
The Crown jewels of the Kingdom of Italy — are in the custody of the Bank of Italy , due to legal controversy between the Italian Republic and the Savoia family.
It is not clear who is the legal owner. On the actual crown this inscription was placed on the back of the circlet, while the front was actually covered with precious stones like the rest of the crown.
A sceptre consisting of a gilt rod topped with a red-enameled globe topped in turn by a red-enameled Florentine Lily also formed part of the regalia of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany.
This crown was also used as the heraldic crown in the arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Of the imperial regalia of the Roman Emperors, previous to the Byzantine era, little remains.
The best-known examples, and those with the strongest claim to authenticity, are a sceptre, some fittings for Roman standards, and other small items, all from a cache buried on the Palatine Hill c.
The objects were made of fine bronze, glass, and semi-precious stone. These items were almost certainly intended for personal use by the emperor and his retinue, making them unique surviving examples of their type.
The archaeologists who excavated the find have suggested that the items might have belonged to the emperor Maxentius , and may have been concealed by some unknown loyalist followers after his final defeat, and subsequent death.
Beyond this, the regalia of the ancient Roman emperors exists primarily in artistic depictions from their time-period. The crown jewels of the Kingdom of Man consist of a ceremonial sword known as the Manx Sword of State.
The Sword of State is carried by the sword bearer before the Queens personal representative to the Isle of Man, the Lieutenant Governor, at each meeting of Tynwald day and dates from not later than the 12th century.
It is popularly said to be the sword of Olaf the Black , who became King of Mann and the Isles in Recent analysis of the sword has determined that it is a 15th-century design, and probably made in London.
The blade itself is thought to have been fitted in the late 16th or 17th century. It is possible that the sword was made for the Tynwald meeting that was attended by Sir John Stanley.
Monaco features a heraldic crown on its coat-of-arms , but does not possess any crown jewels or regalia per se. The only surviving part of the Polish Crown Jewels is from the Piast dynasty and consists of the coronation sword known as the Szczerbiec.
Today it is displayed in the Royal Castle in Dresden, Germany. The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry, regalia, and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy.
Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history , the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost and gained many pieces.
The Romanian Crown Jewels consist of three crowns: This gesture was symbolic because was the th anniversary of the First Serbian Uprising.
They were made in Paris by the famous Falise brothers jewellery company. A document known as "The Swabian Mirror" or Schwabenspiegel c.
This crown was placed on the head of the duke during the enthronement ceremony. The crown or hat is described as "a grey Slovenian Hat with a grey cord and four leaves suspended from the brim".
In the Habsburg Duke Rudolf IV imparted coats of arms to those provinces without them and ordered the Slovenian Hat to be placed above the arms of the Slovenian March later called Lower Carniola and now a province of Slovenia.
A crown called the "ducal hat" of Carniola still exists in Graz. The kingdoms that would consolidate to form Spain during the 15th and 16th centuries, namely the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, did not have consistent coronation ceremonies.
The last recorded coronation ceremony in what would become Spain occurred in the 15th century; since then, the monarchs were not crowned, but proclaimed.
As such, there was decreased importance for a coherent set of crown jewels, as these are usually themselves coronation regalia.
Much of what did exist into the modern era of the regalia of Spain was destroyed in the Great Fire of Madrid of Christmas Eve This crown is made of golden silver, and it features half-arches resting on 8 plates bearing the emblems of the Kingdom.
The crown and scepter are displayed during the opening of the Cortes Parliament. Today they are kept by the Patrimonio Nacional the National Heritage.
Today, there are other pieces of jewelry and historically important items that would be considered "crown jewels" in other countries but are not denominated as such in Spain.
In terms of jewelry, all of the jewels and tiaras worn by the members of the Spanish Royal Family are privately owned by them.
More historically important elements are kept as pieces of cultural interest in different parts of Spain. For example, the personal crown used by Isabella I of Castile , her scepters, and her sword, are kept in the Royal Chapel in the Cathedral of Granada.
As a consequence, this means that beyond the crown and scepter used during important occasions of the Spanish state, there is no other element of the crown jewels of Spain.
The symbols of the Swedish monarchy have not actually been worn since , but are still displayed at weddings, christenings and funerals.
Until the crown jewels were also displayed at the opening of the Riksdag Parliament. Among the oldest objects are the sword of Gustav Vasa and the crown , orb, sceptre and key of King Erik XIV and numerous other sovereigns.
Apart from a 12th-century anointing spoon, they all date from after Restoration of Charles II in The ancient crown jewels of England were destroyed by Oliver Cromwell in when he established the Commonwealth of England.
Wives of kings are crowned as Queen Consort with a plainer set of regalia. In addition to crowns there are also various orbs, swords, coronets, rings and other pieces of regalia.
They are the oldest surviving crown jewels in the United Kingdom. They were hidden during the Interregnum.
The Honours of Scotland were almost forgotten following their last use at the coronation of Charles II in until they were discovered in a chest inside Edinburgh Castle in the early 19th century.
It is recorded that it was seized by the English authorities following a search of the luggage of the deposed John Balliol as he attempted to leave England and make his way to exile in France following his release from imprisonment in London in The later fate of this crown is not entirely clear, but it may have been returned to Scotland during the negotiations between Robert I of Scotland and Edward II of England following the English defeat at Bannockburn in or perhaps was returned to Scotland for use in the coronation of Edward Balliol when he was installed as king of Scots by England in Nevertheless, it is not in existence today.
The original regalia of the Welsh princes have been lost. The regalia of the papacy are kept in the Vatican City.
For further Information, see Papal regalia and insignia. Previously, the Royal House had no crown. Setting aside the artifacts of Aztec and Spanish rule, there are also extant remnants of the imperial regalia of the First Mexican Empire and Second Mexican Empire.
All are currently on display at Iolani Palace. Worn once and only by Kalakaua and his Queen Kapiolani, they were damaged by looters during the overthrow but later restored and replace with glass jewels.
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